“In a cleaning validation program, Which swab area is preferred ?
In any cleaning validation program, two common sample methods usually used.
One is rinse sampling and the other is swab sampling.
For swab sampling, some companies choose to use a 25 cm² swab area, others are using a 100 cm².
As per my limited info, no regulation ask to use a specific swab area.
But since you choose to use one of them, there must be a scientific rational/ justification, right ?
is it because, the larger is your swab area, the greater residues you can swab and recover ?
practically, some factors affect and effected by determining a swab surface area, Like ; recovery, the swabbed equipment part, residue limit..etc.
Having worked in sterile production environments where contamination control was vital, there were zero exceptions to following the established procedures. Exceptions would invariably lead to unacceptable outcomes. With regards to lock-down and quarantine in relation to SARS-COV-2, there are many exceptions and deviations from the requirements. That will only lead to….you guessed it, an unacceptable outcome. With this in mind, I present to you a brief article on contamination control in sterile production environments. Continue reading →
“Hi. I have a cleanroom question. When collecting an air sample with an air sampler device can you put the impactor head down when changing the plate. Can you put the lid of the plate down when you change the plate. What do you do with the two lids when changing the plate as I thought you could not put them down.
“Hi all, I need your support to find the answers of the following questions:
1. Using manual cleaning of glass vial before sterilization in dry oven in aseptic process for lyophilized product which means no depyrogenation , is it acceptable? and if yes, what is the requirement that should be provided to the inspector as evidence of no contamination (as documents / studies/ gown).
2. Is it mandatory to conduct viable and non-viable monitoring in the ascetic process during the capping and crimping?
Thanks in advance…“
When testing non sterile products, as well as allowed numbers of microbes, there are certain types of microbes that are specified in the regulations as not allowed and still others that can de deemed to be objectionable.
If you work as a microbiologist where you test total microbial aerobic counts (TMAC), total yeast and mould counts (TMYC) and for specific microbes or conduct investigations into the nature of microbes and what impact they may have on the product and the end user, this presentation will benefit you. I will teach you the the following:
What makes a specified organism
What makes an objectionable organism
How to determine if a microbe is objectionable
Risk assessment considerations
The benefits of knowing the differences between specified & objectionable organisms
“I have a question on microbiological testing of finished goods. We normally do TCP and Yest and Mold, however some customers are saying that pathogenic bacteria test is required after an enrichment is done. Is this really necessary if the PET passes and the TCP and Yest and Mold are less than 10 cfu?”
The PIC/S Guide to Good Manufacturing Practice PE009-13 was published January 1, 2017. Edition 14 was published on 1 July, 2018.
The TGA adopted version 13 of the guide in 2018 and “just given” notice that it intends to adopt the current version of the PIC/S Guide (PE009-14) by July 1st 2020.
So you know what changes, if any you need to make to be in compliance with PE009-14, what are the key differences between these two guidance documents?
According to the Revision History the following content was revised:
Chapter 3 – Premises and Equipment
Chapter 5 – Production
Chapter 8 (Part 1) – Complaints and Product Recall
Annex 17 – Parametric Release
Where possible I will compare the changes. For wholesale rewrites, I will summarise the new content.
Chapter 3 – Premises and Equipment
Section 3.6 has been rewritten to categorically state that cross-contamination should be prevented for all products. A risk based approach to using dedicated facilities is advised. Specifically drawing attention to the various product classes such as cytotoxics, sensitising materials, hormones etc has been dropped.
I’d like to see a line break between the end pf 3.19 and the start of 3.20.
Chapter 5 – Production
Section 5.17 has been moved from General into Prevention of Cross-Contamination in Production and expanded. A reference to Chapter 3 is included and attention is drawn to technical poisons.
Section 5.19 has been reworded and condensed. Chapter 3 is referenced.
Section 5.20. has been greatly expanded to include a discussion of risk assessment.
A new section 5.21 has been added outlining Organisational and Technical measures to prevent cross contamination with regards to Quality Risk Management. The information here comes from PE009-13’s section 5.19 and is more complete.
Section 5.22 is new and advises regular review section 5.17 to 5.21.
The sub chapters on Starting Materials, previously included Section 5.25 to 5.35. These have been expanded and now comprise sections 5.27 to 5.39. New guidelines relating to risk assessments and supporting evidence has been included.
Section 5.29 introduces information on the approval and maintenance of suppliers of active substances.
Section 5.33 (the old 5.30) drops reference to Chapter 6, Item 13 and states solely Chapter 6. Item 13 relates to sample container labelling in PE009-13 and 14.
Section 5.35 is new and discusses who is responsible for the testing of starting materials.
Section 5.36 is new and discusses the rationale for outsourcing. Importantly, this needs to be documented and justified.
Section 5.32 now becomes section 5.37.
Section 5.42 under Processing Operations Intermediate and Bulk Products (previously 2.37) no longer has “validation “in bold. I would suggest this in no way deemphasises the need for validation.
Section 5.45 in Packaging Materials (previously 5.40) has been reworded from the purchase of materials to the selection, qualification and maintenance of suppliers of such materials.
Section 5.53 (previously 5.48) now states attention should be given to “avoid and remove” rather than “avoiding and removing” contaminants.
Section 5.59 (previously 5.54) now has the five bullets numbers rather than alphabetised.
Section 5.7 (previously 5.65) has not changed with regards to return of product from the market. The resale or recovery of such product can only be assessed by the Quality Control Department, so NOT the Quality Assurance Department. Presumably the investigation would be conducted by QC representatives and ultimately signed off on by QA.
A new sub chapter Product Shortage due to Manufacturing Constraints has been included with a single section, 5.71 discussing the need to report this in a timely manner to the marketing authorisation holder (MAH) is there is going to be a restriction of supply.
Chapter 8 (Part 1) – Complaints and Product Recall
The entirety of Chapter 8 has been greatly expanded. I recommend you read the updated guidance in detail.
Previously there were three sub chapters:
Now there are six:
Personnel and Organisation
Procedures for Handling and Investigating Complaints Including Possible Quality Defects
Investigation and Decision-Making
Root Cause Analysis and Corrective and Preventative Actions
Product Recalls and Other Potential Risk-Reducing Actions
Rather than compare version 13 to 14, I will summarise what is in the version 14 Chapter 8.
Chapter 8 – Principle Summary
The Principle has been greatly expanded. CAPA is now spelled out and reference given to Chapter 1. The need to inform the Competent Authorities in a timely manner has been added. Information on what happens when activities are outsources has been added.
Chapter 8 – Personnel and Organisation Summary
Appropriately trained, experienced and independent (from sales and marketing authorisation, unless justified) personal need to be responsible for investigating product complaints and quality defect investigations.
Sufficient resources needs to be allocated to this and they need to be available for interaction with the Competent Authorities.
Everything needs to be documented.
Chapter 8 – Procedures for Handling and Investigating Complaints Including Possible Quality Defects Summary
Document everything. Determine if the complaint is legitimate. Procedures need to be in place to document how to run an investigation. Section 8.9 details what points need addressing as part of the investigation.
Chapter 8 – Investigation and Decision-Making Summary
Document everything. Consider examining related batches (and possibly) products. Review previous defect reports. Make decisions based on risk and do this in a timely manner. Report quality defects to the Competent Authorities in a timely manner.
Chapter 8 – Root Cause Analysis and Corrective and Preventative Actions Summary
Where a root cause cannot be identified, hypothesise what it might be and address that. The effectiveness of CAPA needs to be monitored and assesses. Quality defect records need to be reviewed and trends analysed.
Chapter 8 – Product Recalls and Other Potential Risk-Reducing Actions Summary
Document everything. If the product is on the market, any return needs to be conducted as a recall and this needs to be conducted promptly and at the drop of a hat. If the recall affects clinical trials, the ability to identify blinded product (if necessary).
Consider discussing with the Competent Authorities the extent of the recall and they need to be informed BEFORE the recall is initiated.
Recalled products need to be stored back on site separately to other batches. The recalled batch needs to be reconciled to capture every vial, packet etc.
The recall procedure needs to be periodically evaluated for effectiveness. Here you could incorporate mock recalls into your internal audit program.
Annex 17 – Real Time Release Testing and Parametric Release
Previously names Parametric Release and containing items 1.1 to 3.17 (not including the Glossary, the sections now comprise 1.1 to 4.18 with the Glossary now being Section 5 (previously 4).
I recommend you read the updated Annex in detail.
The old sections were:
Parametric Release for Sterile Products
The new sections are:
Real Time Release Testing (RTRT)
Parametric Release and Sterilisation
Sterilisation Process sub section 4.12 to 4.18
Rather than compare version 13 to 14, I will summarise what is in the version 14 Annex 17.
Annex 17 Principle Summary
Reference to the European Organization for Quality and a need to comply with the basic requirements of GMP has been dropped. Now it states that product must comply with their approved specifications and reference is made to the Pharmaceutical Quality System (PQS).
Annex 17 Scope Summary
The scope outlines the requirements for Real Time Release Testing.
Annex 17 Real Time Release Testing (RTRT) Summary
What RTRT entails is explained and advice is provided on designing a RTRT strategy. The RTRT strategy needs to be incorporated into the PQS. Reference to Part 1, Chaper 1 and Part II Chapter 2 of the PIC/S Guide to Good Manufacturing Practice for Medicinal Products is provided. References to Annex 13 and 15 is also provided.
As well as controlling the process, manufacturers need to ensure a state of control in maintained.
Staff need specific training in RTRT. Key personal need to be adequately experienced and have sufficient knowledge and understanding of RTRT.
Emphasis is given to qualification, validation and management.
All deviations or failures need to be thoroughly investigated and adverse trends identified and examined.
Where RTRT has been approved, that approach should be routine.
Annex 17 Parametric Release and Sterilisation Summary
Here the release of a batch that has been terminally sterilised is discussed.
A distinction between in process monitoring vs examining a terminally sterilised sample is given to draw attention to what end-product test here is capable of showing compared to in process testing.
A product cannot be moved to another container following terminal sterilisation.
This process can only be used with a suitable history of GMP compliance.
Everything needs to be documented and everyone needs to be appropriately qualified.
Change control is needed for changes.
Advice on bioburden testing is provided along with ways to reduce bio-burden in the product. Hold time validation (or at least consideration) is alluded to.
Sterilisation Process 4.12-4.18.
Qualification and validation are deemed critical and periodic requalification and revalidation should be planned. (Make sure you do it, not just plan to do it!) Routine monitoring is needed to show the sterilisation is effective. The steriliser trace should show all conditions were met for the cycle.
Non-compliance cannot be overrules by a finished product passing the test for sterility.
Annex 17 Glossary Summary
Revamped so rather than two sections, “Parametric Release” and “Sterility Assurance System” the Glossary now comprises:
Critical Process Parameters
Critical Quality Attributes
Real time release testing
State of Control
Chapter 3 introduced a risk based approach to segregation of product classes/categories.
Chapter 5 presents a greater emphasis Quality Risk Management especially with the new 5.21 sub section.
Chapter 8 was greatly expanded to detail corrective and preventative action, who does what (and what department they should be from), the need to inform the Competent Authorities in a timely manner and to conduct risk assessments.
Annex 17 Real Time Release Testing and Parametric Release was overhauled with a large discussion of the ins and outs of this form or release.
In addition to determining what changes you may need to make, you should check to see that you comply with the sections of the guidance that have not been revised. If you do not conduct such reviews regularly, I recommend doing this at least every year at a high level as part of your internal audit program. I also recommend that you review the guidance when updating or reviewing your documentation.
“May I know what are the gmp guidelines for manufacturing of hand sanitizers? Does it require cleanroom facility? What is the minimum acceptable requirements for are to be accepted as per gmp guidelines if present?“
“Can anyone point me to any studies done recently that show the benefits of having written documentation and/or online video tutorials available for software users? Looking for metrics on average time saved by having v. not having, etc.“